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6th International Conference on Oceanography, Ocean Technology and Marine Biology

Dallas, USA

Maksim Koval

Maksim Koval

KamchatNIRO, Russia

Title: Environmental conditions and biological community of the Penzhina and Talovka hypertidal estuary (Northwest Kamchatka) in the ice-free season

Biography

Biography: Maksim Koval

Abstract

New data on the abiotic conditions; species composition; abundance, distribution, and migrations of fauna; and feeding interactions in an estuary ecosystem were obtained during expeditions in the mouths of Penzhina and Talovka rivers (Northwest Kamchatka), June-September 2014-2015. It is revealed that in the ice-free season, the hydrological regime of the estuary is determined by seasonal fluctuations of river runoff, as well as fortnightly and daily variation of tides. The estuary is characterized by hypertidal fluctuations (up to 10–12 m); strong reverse flows (up to 1.0–1.5 m/s), considerable tidal variations in salinity (from 0 to 6–9‰ at the river boundary and from 6–8 to 14–16‰ at the offshore boundary), and high water turbidity (up to 1 000 NTU or more). Based on the spatial structure of the community, three ecological zones with mobile boundaries are distinguished: freshwater (salinity 0–0.1‰), estuarine (0–12.3‰), and neritic (11.2–18.9‰). High turbidity prevents the development of phytoplankton in the estuarine zone (EZ), and the local benthic community is significantly depleted due to the desalination and widespread of aleuritic silts. Neritic copepods and nektobenthic brackish-water crustaceans generate the maximum abundance and biomass here. The species that have adapted to the local extreme hydrologic conditions dominate and form the basis of the estuarine food chain. Dominant among the EZ vertebrates are such groups as anadromous fishes (smelts, pacific salmons, charrs, and sticklebacks); waterfowl (terns, kittiwakes, cormorants, fulmars, puffins, guillemots, auklets, and wadepipers); and predatory marine mammals (larga, ringed seal, bearded seal, and white whale). The total abundance and biomass of these animals are much higher in the pelagic EZ in comparison to neighboring zones. The scheme of the food web of the Penzhina and Talovka hypertidal estuary was constructed.